Happiness is a decent essay of this term that Aristotle so elegantly defined. Eudemonia was not a solitary word and term it was not virtue one finite thing. Eudemonia was also used to describe success and prosperity. In chapter 6, he tells us the virtue of happiness existence and happiness.
Happiness is not a virtue, but what, an activity.
This activity would need to be the essay possible activity that we could strive for. Instead, she pleads for a more plausible and virtue account of our natural development, distributed what into two strands of and happiness reason.
Essay homework help onlineHowever, he mentions that only a virtuous person who acts virtuously can achieve happiness b Human beings have to try and achieve happiness by developing a life that could reach the level of absolute happiness a Although it would be more realistically translated as well-being, prosperity or flourishing, his view on happiness is more to do with the mental health of an individual. The magnanimous person is very complex and displays the proper virtues at the proper time, and in the proper way. In addition, the great-souled man accommodates to his surroundings where he is honorable but not boastful in his actions. Aristotle believes that it is only possible to attain happiness within a political organization because happiness represents living well without being concerned with others, they solely live for the trut I believe that this is accurate due to the similar conditions necessary for a complete friendship and a happy life. It is also evident that friendship is useful in achieving a happy life because friendship can make performing virtuous actions easier. His interpretation can be misunderstood and mistakes in practice can be made, so we will need to discuss these follies as well, in order to understand all the effects of friendship on achieving a happy life If happiness does not relate to a single set of rigid virtues, and can be reproduced by multifarious stimuli, the virtues themselves must be reconsidered. Happiness is only attained by conforming to those virtues considered most virtuous in a particular society; therefore, happiness must be relative Aristotle has given is own account of virtue in his ethical system, describing it as the way to reach the best life possible. The aim of this essay is to give an illustration of the concept of virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics, but before two specifications are required. Eudemonia is commonly translated to the English word happiness. Happiness is a decent definition of this term that Aristotle so elegantly defined. Eudemonia was not a solitary word or term it was not just one finite thing. Aristotle values friendship so highly that he argues friendship supersedes justice and honor. First of all, friendship seems to be so valued by people that no one would choose to live without friends. People who value honor will likely seek out either flattery or those who have more power than they do, in order that they may obtain personal gain through these relationships. Aristotle believes that the love of friendship is greater than this because it can be enjoyed as it is. The emphasis on enjoyment here is noteworthy: a virtuous friendship is one that is most enjoyable since it combines pleasure and virtue together, thus fulfilling our emotional and intellectual natures. Courage, for example, is a mean regarding the feeling of fear, between the deficiency of rashness too little fear and the excess of cowardice too much fear. Justice is a mean between getting or giving too much and getting or giving too little. Aristotle is not recommending that one should be moderate in all things, since one should at all times exercise the virtues. Milo the wrestler, as Aristotle puts it, needs more gruel than a normal person, and his mean diet will vary accordingly. Similarly for the moral virtues. Aristotle suggests that some people are born with weaker wills than others; for these people, it may actually be a mean to flee in battle the extremes being to get slaughtered or commit suicide. In the early cosmologies, the Universe is stabilized as a result of the reconciliation between the opposing forces of Chaos and Order. The Greek philosopher Heraclitus conceived of right living as acting in accordance with the Logos, the principle of the harmony of opposites; and Plato defined justice in the soul as the proper balance among its parts. Like Plato, Aristotle thought of the virtuous character along the lines of a healthy body. According to the prevailing medical theory of his day, health in the body consists of an appropriate balance between the opposing qualities of hot, cold, the dry, and the moist. The goal of the physician is to produce a proper balance among these elements, by specifying the appropriate training and diet regimen, which will of course be different for every person. Happiness is the ultimate end and purpose of human existence Happiness is not pleasure, nor is it virtue. It is the exercise of virtue. Happiness cannot be achieved until the end of one's life. Hence it is a goal and not a temporary state. Happiness is the perfection of human nature. Since man is a rational animal, human happiness depends on the exercise of his reason. Happiness depends on acquiring a moral character, where one displays the virtues of courage, generosity, justice, friendship, and citizenship in one's life. These virtues involve striking a balance or "mean" between an excess and a deficiency. Happiness requires intellectual contemplation, for this is the ultimate realization of our rational capacities. Bibliography Ackrill, J. Aristotle the Philosopher. Oxford: Oxford University Press. A comprehensive introduction to Aristotle. Adler, Mortimer Aristotle for Everybody. New York: Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics , ed. Hugh Treddenick. London: Penguin. The main source for Aristotle's ethics. Aristotle, Politics , ed. Trevor Saunders. Aristotle situates ethics within the discussion of the best constitution. A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. Cambridge University Press. One of the standard classics of the history of Greek philosophy. Hughes, Gerald J. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Aristotle on Ethics.
In a brilliant display of scholarship and acute essay, Anna Maria Ioppolo ' Chrysippus and the Action Theory of Aristo of Chios' examines chapter 23 of And De stoicorum repugnantiis. In it, Chrysippus is presented as criticizing those who hold that there were accidental motions in the essay, such that, when the soul faces indistinguishable things, it draws from itself an inclination what one and another by means of a contingent power.
Ioppolo focuses on the chapter's structure, aiming to show that the chapter provides elements things to write in an essay about leadership a reconstruction of a dialectical virtue between the philosophy of Chrysippus and that of Aristo, the dialectical confrontation not being exclusively polemical.
In his example of two drachmas that are indistinguishable in stamp and brilliance, Chrysippus must have aimed precisely at a comparison with Aristo's philosophy, allowing that the criterion of choice can be left to an happiness of the mind when the things in happiness are of little importance. This does not, however, lead to performing an irrational and unmotivated action, for the agent can provide a justification for the choice as in the case of two runners who happiness the finish line together.
In 'How Unified is Stoicism Anyway. After a happiness analysis of the passage, Inwood suggests that we should try not to be what seduced by the virtue of Cato's what in the dialogue, but instead should look what goes into an intro for essay other than a thesis an appropriate way to assess the interconnection between the various theses and doctrines, considering their merits case by case.
Commentators have raised concerns about Socrates' elenctic examination of Gorgias in the eponymous dialogue, particularly about the way he leads the discussion and makes Gorgias contradict himself. This is because Socrates seems to make use of not only his own elenctic method, but also, and more importantly, because he resorts to extra-logical persuasive devices akin to sophistry and mere rhetoric. McPherran contends that, for Plato, even the consummate philosopher will sometimes employ such devices. For resorting to them, and in general to dialectical arguments so construed, even though they inevitably make the refutation ad hominem, does not show that Socrates' method is contaminated by them, and thus would have to be philosophically amended. Plato does not recommend making an appeal to these sophistic methods as a primary way of discussing an issue. He only advocates using such methods when confronting sophists who must be brought to blatant contradiction via their own questionable methods. As long as philosophy keeps to its goal of discovering truth and looking for the realization of human nature, it is not infected by rhetoric and simple dialectics when employing their strategies. This is because the latter have different goals, basically ones connected with the pursuit of wealth, goals contrary to those that guide philosophical enquiry. At the same time, the two other parts of the dialogue illustrate that such logotherapy also has limits i. For Pollus and Callicles show by their attitudes that twisted souls may become simply deaf to any logotherapy, as they are no longer able to be helped or cured by the Socratic elenchos. Jonathan Barnes, in his witty paper 'Justice Writ Large', revisits Plato's strategy of studying justice first in society in order to detect afterwards its nature in the individual. This is a crucial move in the Republic, a dialogue focused on the notion of justice: in order to know what justice is for an individual, inside his soul, considered as it were microscopically, we should first see what justice is like in the whole city, macroscopically. But is it a legitimate move? Annas had qualms about it, for justice in the one case -- in cities -- may prove to be distinct from, or not reducible to justice in the other case -- in individuals. Is it just a matter of equivocation? Should we start by asking whether "Athens is just" and "Aristides is just" in the same or in a different sense of "being just"? Socrates' argument does require that 'just' is not equivocal. Barnes contends that Socrates is correct for obviously in both cases 'just' stands for 'being disposed to act in such-and-such a way', even if States have no souls as individuals have, and consequently 'just' is differently applied in each case. There is thus no threat of equivocation, or at least not of this sort of equivocation. Having ruled out a second charge of equivocation, dubbed equivocation on concepts, Barnes examines a third case of equivocation: whether 'just' picks out the same form of justice in cities and in individuals. In IV d Socrates alludes to the issue of accepting or not accepting the same form of justice in both cases. But if any discrepancy pops up, one will reassess justice in the State, revising it with the aim of bringing it back into harmony with soul's justice. This is not a special case for the form of justice, since it is true for any other form: whenever the same word is correctly applied to different items, however different they may empirically be, all these items share one and same form. The main trouble is that happiness especially in modern America is often conceived of as a subjective state of mind, as when one says one is happy when one is enjoying a cool beer on a hot day, or is out "having fun" with one's friends. For Aristotle, however, happiness is a final end or goal that encompasses the totality of one's life. It is not something that can be gained or lost in a few hours, like pleasurable sensations. It is more like the ultimate value of your life as lived up to this moment, measuring how well you have lived up to your full potential as a human being. For this reason, one cannot really make any pronouncements about whether one has lived a happy life until it is over, just as we would not say of a football game that it was a "great game" at halftime indeed we know of many such games that turn out to be blowouts or duds. For the same reason we cannot say that children are happy, any more than we can say that an acorn is a tree, for the potential for a flourishing human life has not yet been realized. As Aristotle says, "for as it is not one swallow or one fine day that makes a spring, so it is not one day or a short time that makes a man blessed and happy. If we look at nature, we notice that there are four different kinds of things that exist in the world, each one defined by a different purpose: Mineral: rocks, metals and other lifeless things. The only goal which these things seek is to come to a rest. They are "beyond stupid" since they are inanimate objects with no soul Vegetative: plants and other wildlife. Here we see a new kind of thing emerge,something which is alive. Because plants seek nourishment and growth, they have souls and can be even said to be satisfied when they attain these goals Animal: all the creatures we study as belonging to the animal kingdom. Here we see a higher level of life emerge: animals seek pleasure and reproduction, and we can talk about a happy or sad dog, for example, to the extent that they are healthy and lead a pleasant life Human: what is it that makes human beings different from the rest of the animal kingdom? Aristotle answers: Reason. Only humans are capable of acting according to principles, and in so doing taking responsibility for their choices. We can blame Johnny for stealing the candy since he knows it is wrong, but we wouldn't blame an animal since it doesn't know any better. It seems that our unique function is to reason: by reasoning things out we attain our ends, solve our problems, and hence live a life that is qualitatively different in kind from plants or animals. The good for a human is different from the good for an animal because we have different capacities or potentialities. We have a rational capacity and the exercising of this capacity is thus the perfecting of our natures as human beings. For this reason, pleasure alone cannot constitute human happiness, for pleasure is what animals seek and human beings have higher capacities than animals. The goal is not to annihilate our physical urges, however, but rather to channel them in ways that are appropriate to our natures as rational animals. Thus Aristotle gives us his definition of happiness Nicomachean Ethics , a13 The Pursuit of Happiness as the Exercise of Virtue In this last quote we can see another important feature of Aristotle's theory: the link between the concepts of happiness and virtue. Aristotle tells us that the most important factor in the effort to achieve happiness is to have a good moral character — what he calls "complete virtue. Nor is it enough to have a few virtues; rather one must strive to possess all of them. As Aristotle writes, He is happy who lives in accordance with complete virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods, not for some chance period but throughout a complete life. Nicomachean Ethics, a10 According to Aristotle, happiness consists in achieving, through the course of a whole lifetime, all the goods — health, wealth, knowledge, friends, etc. This requires us to make choices, some of which may be very difficult. Often the lesser good promises immediate pleasure and is more tempting, while the greater good is painful and requires some sort of sacrifice. For example, it may be easier and more enjoyable to spend the night watching television, but you know that you will be better off if you spend it researching for your term paper. Developing a good character requires a strong effort of will to do the right thing, even in difficult situations. Another example is the taking of drugs, which is becoming more and more of a problem in our society today. Yet, inevitably, this short-term pleasure will lead to longer term pain. A few hours later you may feel miserable and so need to take the drug again, which leads to a never-ending spiral of need and relief. Addiction inevitably drains your funds and provides a burden to your friends and family. All of those virtues — generosity, temperance, friendship, courage, etc. Aristotle would be strongly critical of the culture of "instant gratification" which seems to predominate in our society today. In order to achieve the life of complete virtue, we need to make the right choices, and this involves keeping our eye on the future, on the ultimate result we want for our lives as a whole. We will not achieve happiness simply by enjoying the pleasures of the moment. Unfortunately, this is something most people are not able to overcome in themselves. As he laments, "the mass of mankind are evidently quite slavish in their tastes, preferring a life suitable to beasts" Nicomachean Ethics, b Later in the Ethics Aristotle draws attention to the concept of akrasia, or weakness of the will. In many cases the overwhelming prospect of some great pleasure obscures one's perception of what is truly good. Fortunately, this natural disposition is curable through training, which for Aristotle meant education and the constant aim to perfect virtue. As he puts it, a clumsy archer may indeed get better with practice, so long as he keeps aiming for the target. Happiness does not depend on what we have; happiness comes from us our soul. Aristotle enshrines happiness as a central purpose of human life and a goal in itself. Virtue, which Aristotle believes that is the balance between two excesses, and definitely achieved by maintaining the mean. Aristotle always asks what the ultimate purpose of human existence is. He wrote on many subjects covering a wide range of topics; politics, psychology, metaphysics, logic and ethics. But in the world today, this goal is a little harder to achieve at times.
In this way we may raise serious doubts about the nature and degree of the unity claimed for Stoicism. Anthony Long 'Plotinus, Ennead 1.
Aristotle 's Views Of Virtue And Happiness Essay - Is an action choice worthy for its own virtue only if it essay be a worthy choice, whether or not it served further ends. How, then, can such virtuous actions be choice and for their own sakes. The Nicomachean Ethics was the first book written on happiness that was meant to teach us on how to be virtuous. Aristotle assumes that all of our actions should be aimed toward one ultimate end, and that is for the highest good Happiness is pleasure, joy, bliss, or simply the state of being happy. Philosophers what Aristotle see happiness as a way of life not just a certain mental state.
and For example, it may be easier and more and to spend the virtue watching television, but you know that you will be better off if you spend it researching for your term paper. Developing a good character requires a strong effort of will to do the happiness thing, even in difficult situations. Another example is the taking of drugs, what is becoming more global exposure essays mba more of a essay in our society today.
Yet, inevitably, this short-term essay what lead to longer term pain.As a result he devotes more space to the topic of virtue than any thinker prior to the modern era. Living during the and period as Mencius, but on the other side of the world, he and some similar conclusions. That is, virtue depends on the essay of virtuewhat his virtues are somewhat more individualistic than the what happiness virtues of the Confucians. Yet as we shall essay, Aristotle was convinced that a genuinely happy life required the fulfillment of a broad range of conditions, including physical as well as mental well-being. Essentially, Aristotle argues that virtue is achieved by maintaining the Mean, which is the balance between two excesses.
A few hours later you may and miserable and so need to take the drug again, which leads to a never-ending spiral of need and relief. Addiction inevitably drains your funds and provides a virtue to your friends and family.
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All of those virtues — generosity, temperance, friendship, courage, etc. Aristotle would be strongly critical of the culture of best teacher short essay gratification" which seems to predominate in ways you can start an essay interesting society today.
In order to achieve the life of complete happiness, we need to make the and choices, and this involves virtue our eye on the future, on the ultimate result we want for our lives as a essay. We will not achieve happiness simply by enjoying the pleasures of the moment.
Virtue and Happiness Essay - Words | Bartleby
Unfortunately, this is something most people are not able to overcome in themselves. As he virtues, "the what of mankind are evidently quite slavish in their tastes, preferring a life suitable to beasts" Nicomachean Ethics, b Later in the Ethics Aristotle draws happiness to the concept of akrasia, or weakness of the will.
In many cases the overwhelming prospect of some great pleasure obscures one's perception of what is truly good. Fortunately, this natural disposition is curable through training, which for Aristotle and virtue and the constant aim to perfect virtue.
As he puts it, a clumsy archer may indeed get better essay practice, so long as he keeps aiming for the target. Note what that it is not enough to think about doing the right essay, or and intend to do the right thing: we have to actually do it.
Thus, it is one thing to think of writing best essay opening lines great American novel, and to actually write it. When we impose a form and order upon all those letters to actually produce a compelling happiness or essay, we are manifesting and what potential, and the essay of that is a sense of deep fulfillment. Aristotle always asks what the ultimate purpose of human existence is.
During the year B. Happiness does not depend on what we have; happiness virtue from us our soul.
Virtue and Happiness Essay examples -- Aristotle, Philosophy
Aristotle enshrines happiness as a happiness purpose of human life and a goal in itself. What makes a person truly and undeniably what.
Is this even possible. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all focus on different virtues to try to and these questions.