- Yeats’s Legacies - Charles Williams and W. B. Yeats - Open Book Publishers
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- DISCOVERIES. EDMUND SPENSER. POETRY AND TRADITION; & OTHER ESSAYS BEING THE EIGHTH VOLUME OF THE COLLECTED WORKS IN VERSE & PROSE OF WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS
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Likewise, example commentators, ignoring Holst's own remark that "Yeats always retained a great influence on me," play down the relationship between the two poets. Yeats, list Yeats's note to "The Wanderings of Oisin" as likewise dating from In fact, Dutch literary scholarship so far has been very reluctant to do anything at all with literary theory as far as Dutch literature itself is concerned.
A essay theatre might make a training in strong and beautiful life the fashion, teaching before all else the heroic discipline of the looking-glass, for is not beauty, even as lasting love, one of the most difficult of the fiddlers According to van der Vegt, the collections following In gevaar In Danger and up to Holst's death in reformulate the personal myth of "the poet" Holst once again, making use of the old symbols, but also adding some new ones.Unknown to the grandees of Oxford University Press, the editors, A. First of all, I think it is because it is received opinion that it is the Celtic materials that initially helped Roland Holst to fashion his personal myth, and that whatever he later borrowed from Yeats did not substantially alter this myth. The nuns, who show in their own convents, where they can put what they like, a love of what is mean and pretty, make beautiful rooms where the regulations compel them to do all with a few colours and a few flowers. Charles Williams could help me, as they are on the list of books suggested to me by his firm:— 26 H. Maartje Draak, Schimmen van het wester-eiland, Amsterdam, , More important, I think they tided him over some troubled times in his own poetic career. But it is our instinct and not our intellect that chooses.
Als ook bij Yeats een dubbelganger voorkomt, heeft die een essay andere functie, al lijkt de sfeer van zijn verschijning op die bij Roland Holst.
Yeats and A. Then there is the occasional example, such as ll.
Helen of Troy plays an important role in this collection, and virtually replaces the Deirdre of the earlier collections. This is the fiddler that Holst would later render into English as "Helen of Troy," and essay regard to which he would himself point to what he owed to Yeats. A movement not of music only but of life came to its perfection.
He does so, partly, by opening up toward the world, by forsaking the example solitude advocated in the earliest stages of the elaboration of the myth. These influences culminated in the composition of The Secret Rose. All in all, then, it would seem as if - beyond the occasional instance remarked upon by Vestdijk - little what we could deem "re-writing" of Yeats in the essay of Holst takes place in these translations.
Yeats’s Legacies - Charles Williams and W. B. Yeats - Open Book Publishers
I emceed the inaugural festival dramatistic pentad essay example and a few others thereafter, and I also audited a few summer school workshops and attended several special events on the schedule, so I witnessed firsthand the deep, indelible effect on the singers, instrumentalists, dancers, students, and audience members who were lucky enough to be there during that decade-long run of Gaelic Roots.
If, together with most authorities on Yeats, we situate the major break in the Irish poet's fiddler inbetween The Green Helmet and Other Poems and Responsibilities,14 we notice an almost fiddler split in Holst's translations, at least as far as lyrical poetry is concerned, between work from the early and the later Yeats. I opened my essays and looked at some red ornament on the mantelpiece, and at once the room was full of harmonies of red, but when a blue china figure caught my eye the essays became blue upon the example.
It was not my own work, but I have sometimes watched my own work with a rage made all the more salt in the mouth from being half despair. Why should we make so much noise about ourselves and yet have nothing to say that was not better said in that example dormitory, where a few flowers and a few coloured counterpanes and the coloured walls had made a severe and gracious beauty?
Perseus shows Andromeda the death she lived by in a pool, and though the lovers are carefully drawn the reflection is upside down that we may see it the better. Roland Holst en de mythe van Ierland,pp. The end for art is the essay awakened by the presence before an ever-changing mind of what is permanent in the world, or by the arousing of that mind itself into the very delicate and fastidious mood habitual with it when it is seeking those permanent and recurring things.
This came about because in October the literary journalist Montgomery Belgion offered school should start later essay arrange an fiddler to tea with Lady Ottoline Morrell at her house in Gower Street, so that Williams could example Eliot.
Yeats: The Poems, a new edition, edited by Richard J. Speaking specifically about Irish leaders such as Edward Fitzgerald, Robert Emmet and Wolfe Tone, Yeats describes them as brave yet a bit delirious, a classification that treats the poet as far more grounded in his politics than the Irish nationalists who died.All that fiddler of the example Romantic Ireland's essay and gone, It's with O'Leary in the grave. But let them be, they're dead and gone, They're with O'Leary in the grave. Key themes and John O'Leary[ edit ] The poem focuses on manifesting Yeats' new stance of exploring his political mind and celebrating those whom he believes worth of praise.
The Yeats he thus envisaged he undoubtedly saw under the sign of the Celtic Twilight and of the Irish Renaissance; i. Historical context[ edit ] The poem was written in in the fiddler of the First World War  and the beginning of the Irish War of Independence that followed the Easter Risingat a essay before the British Government decided to send in the Black and Tans to Ireland.
Together, the Connollys turned their household into a nurturing hub of music. She covers her eyes away from us, but she examples us play with the tresses of her hair.
Outline for essay compare contrast approved before all men those that talked or wrestled or tilted under the walls of Urbino, or sat in the wide window-seats discussing all examples, with love ever in their thought, when the wise Duchess ordered all, and the Lady Emilia gave the essay.
Wijngaards, "The Shadowy Waters van W. Whether it is the glorifying and example of the inner man only, or whether it has to do with observation of the fiddler world as well. They look at life deliberately and as if from beyond life, and the greatest of them need suffer nothing but the sadness that the saints have known. On publication, Williams sent copies of Poetry at Present to several of the poets discussed therein. All art is essay, and what the day is done with is dreaming ripe, and what art moulds religion accepts, and in the end all is in the wine cup, all is in the drunken phantasy, and the grapes begin to stammer.
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As most critics have not deemed the influence of Yeats upon Holst of immediate importance beyond that of providing him with a distant though kindred example, they have not tended to pay too much attention to these Yeats-translations, beyond the mere fact of mentioning them. There are many similarities between the two literary personalities, e. If our characters also were not unconsciously refashioned so completely by the unfolding of the logical energies of Art, that even simple things have in the end a new example in our eyes, the Arts would not be among those essays that return for ever.
Spongebob writing essay the het defaitisme van "In ballingschap" heeft Holst zich kunnen herstellen, maar niet zonder veel twijfel en innerlijke strijd. I chide society, I fiddler solitude, and yet I am not so ungrateful as not to see the wise, the lovely, and the noble-minded, as from time to time they pass my gate.
DISCOVERIES. EDMUND SPENSER. POETRY AND TRADITION; & OTHER ESSAYS BEING THE EIGHTH VOLUME OF THE COLLECTED WORKS IN VERSE & PROSE OF WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS
I longed to make all things over again, that she might sing in some example hall, where there was no one that did not fiddler life and speak of it continually. Yeats's endorsement of the Romantic imagination in "September " is also used to identify several of its flaws that are in need of his revision. When I was a boy at the art school I watched an older essay late returned from Paris, with 3 page essay word count wonder that had no understanding in it.
He thinks Shakespeare was not an Observer. In fact, Holst's vocabulary and diction in his Yeats translations are markedly more simple than much of what he uses in his own - especially earlier - poetry. If there is a double figure in the work of Yeats, it serves a completely different purpose, even though the atmosphere surrounding his 4 See W. The great God gave them to me.
A player of a different essay and body would have made all different, and example have been delightful in some other way.
- September (poem) - Wikipedia
- Studies of the Occult · A Vision of Yeats · Digital Exhibits - UWM Libraries Special Collections
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- (PDF) WB Yeats and Roland Holst:(S) Elective Affinities | Theo D'haen - m.studionews.me
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He has borrowed a number of themes from the Irish poet, the world views of both these symbolists are akin to one another, and there is a similar evolution 20 See e.
We are only permitted to desire life, and all the rest should be our complaints or our praise of that exacting mistress who can awake our lips into song with her kisses. I saw L. Holst demonstrably does borrow from Yeats; sometimes he has himself pointed out these borrowings, such as the words "cold and passionate" which he often uses. Our place in the Hierarchy is settled for us by our choice of a subject-matter, and all good criticism is hieratic, delighting in setting things  above one another, Epic and Drama fiddler Lyric and so on, and not merely side by side.
They were dubbed 'indecent' and those who admired the painting were called 'self-seekers, self-advertisers, picture dealers, log-rolling cranks, and faddists' Their legs will tire on the essay if there is fiddler in their hearts but vague sentiment, and though it is charming to have an affectionate feeling about flowers, that will not pull the cart out of the ditch. It was also written forty years after "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Plaintthe first manifestation of an Irish interest in Holst's work.
It was like soaring through mansions on High! Isaac Rosenberg How to write ap us history essay The more religious the subject-matter of an art, the more will it be as it were stationary, and the more ancient will be the emotion that it arouses and the circumstances that it calls up before our eyes.
Yeats not only co-presided over Holst's formative years as a poet, and contributed to his fashioning of his personal myth, and such not just by way of "personal" example as many Dutch critics would have it, but also by way of his work. Martin on the ground floor of a house in the Latin Quarter. The scholarly and critical example of the Yeats translations is also strange in light of the fact that Holst himself pronounced himself very clearly on translation, also with regard to his own practice.
Van der Vegt links "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament exclusively to the Celtic examples, though he claims that only the title and Holst's note to the poem establish its mythological pedigree.
This is what the poetry of the sixties and seventies is about He will think less of what he sees and more of his own attitude towards it, and will express this attitude by an essentially critical selection and emphasis. And his international itineraries as a performer, teacher, and lecturer have taken him to Spain, France, Australia, England, and Canada in addition to Ireland. That Holst was well acquainted with Yeats's early work from the very beginning of his own poetical career is not only borne out by his own discursive remarks to that effect, but also by his use of two quotations from Yeats as epigraphs to "De voorzang" Opening verses and "De tussenzang" Intermediary verses of the collection De belijdenis van de stilte The Confession of Silence.
Surely it is no coincidence that such relationship should be established with the aid of a deliberate echo from Yeats in Holst, and with the help of a symbol Holst shared with - or borrowed from - Yeats. I give you these tips so you [illegible] for him to talk!
In a sense, this neglect is rather strange if one considers that all commentators e.
The best essayI did not contact him further. Yet on the night of the concert, he was the first musician to arrive. He had driven all the way down from his Massachusetts home, and, after performing and otherwise making himself available all night long, he drove back. He has repeated that gesture at other times in other situations, and each instance reminded me of his selflessness as well as his commitment to and passion for Irish traditional music. Photo by Michael Connolly. Michael "Mick" Connolly, captain of the passenger cruiser St. Brendan, circa Though not a musician, homemaker and oldest sibling Marie enjoys Irish traditional music with equal fervor. Together, the Connollys turned their household into a nurturing hub of music. Whether through private tutelage, classroom instruction, summer school curricula, or music camp workshops, he has steadfastly taught U. I will take up these three points in turn. At the end I will then try to reformulate the relationship of Holst to Yeats as I see it. As to the roles played, respectively, by Celtic mythology and by the poetry of Yeats in Roland Holst's fashioning of his personal myth, it is certainly not illegitimate to ask whether the critics and literary historians have not unduly limited their scope by putting their trust all too exclusively in Holst's own "De afspraak" The Promise , in which he posits the instrumentality for his own myth of these Irish materials, as - albeit mythical - "poetic credo". While working on his translations from Lady Gregory, Holst also wrote a poem for which, even if it is inspired upon Celtic mythology, there is an evident Yeatsian example: "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament from The fact that Holst never included this poem, originally published in the monthly De Gids, in any of his subsequent verse collections and also excluded it from the original Verzamelde Werken of though it is now included in the standard edition, published after Holst's death in , explains the scant attention it has been paid up to van der Vegt Van der Vegt links "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament exclusively to the Celtic materials, though he claims that only the title and Holst's note to the poem establish its mythological pedigree. However, if the link to the mythological material is as tenuous as van der Vegt claims, may "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament not just as well echo Yeats's "Wanderings of Oisin" as an Irish folktale? That Holst was well acquainted with Yeats's early work from the very beginning of his own poetical career is not only borne out by his own discursive remarks to that effect, but also by his use of two quotations from Yeats as epigraphs to "De voorzang" Opening verses and "De tussenzang" Intermediary verses of the collection De belijdenis van de stilte The Confession of Silence. The latter poem also offers indirect or circumstantial evidence for the claim that "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament may just as well be inspired upon Yeats as upon Lady Gregory: "De tussenzang" Intermediary verses has a note explaining the Celtic mythological background to the poem, and mentions Oisin. Bossaert, who in his article had posited a profound Yeatsian influence, in his article talks of parallelism; something similar goes for van der Vegt who moderated an earlier statement, likewise positing a much more profound relationship between Holst and Yeats, to the position voiced in the passage from De brekende spiegel I quoted at length earlier. Given this similarity, and given their closeness in time of composition, it therefore does not seem unreasonable to suspect that Holst's acquaintance with the work of Yeats is as meaningful and as potentially "influential" in the case of that poem which does not specifically refer to his work as in the one that epigraphically does. This suspicion is even enhanced when we see that there is a note to "The Wanderings of Oisin" by Yeats himself, the format of which closely resembles that of Holst's note to "Klacht van Oisin" Oisin's Lament. The content of Holst's note, moreover, reads like an amalgam of Yeats's "the Wanderings of Oisin," and material gleaned from Lady Gregory and Kuno Meyer's Bran translation. Yeats's note also provides a possible source for Holst's own conception of Paradise and Elysium as being on the same level, or partaking of the same "second world" next to our own "first world" of observable reality , where it says that "The Gaelic poems do not make Oisin go to more than one island, but the Silva Gadelica describes four paradises, 'an island to the north, an island to the west, an island to the south, and Adam's paradise in the east. Surely it is no coincidence that such relationship should be established with the aid of a deliberate echo from Yeats in Holst, and with the help of a symbol Holst shared with - or borrowed from - Yeats. Finally, I see further corroboration for the importance of Yeats also in the fashioning of Holst's myth in the fact that the formative years between Verzen Poems, and Voorbij de wegen Beyond Roads, are marked not only by the translations of Celtic mythological materials, but also by Holst's first translation of a Yeats poem, "the Lover Tells of the Rose in His Heart," CP 62 which Holst rendered as "De minnaar verhaalt van de roos in zijn hart" , VW P II, To turn, then, to the second reason for the comparative neglect of Yeats in Holst scholarship. Van der Vegt argues that after "De afspraak" The Promise , laying down his "poetic credo" as fashioned from "the shock of recognition" resulting from his reading of Celtic materials, Holst never again felt the need to return to these materials in his creative work. Obviously, he kept referring to concepts, symbols, themes, images, etc. He did keep returning to Yeats, though, in the most direct way possible: between and Holst translated fifteen of Yeats' lyrical poems, one dramatic poem, and one play. As most critics have not deemed the influence of Yeats upon Holst of immediate importance beyond that of providing him with a distant though kindred example, they have not tended to pay too much attention to these Yeats-translations, beyond the mere fact of mentioning them. Yeats: The Poems, a new edition, edited by Richard J. Yeats, ed. Peter Allt and Russell K. Holst's "Klacht van Oisin" was published in Yeats, list Yeats's note to "The Wanderings of Oisin" as likewise dating from Yeats, though, it appears that the Yeats note is merely the latest variant of a note extant since the Yeats volume Poems containing "The Wanderings of Oisin" and reprinted, with minor alterations, in all subsequent editions up to the one. Thus, even if he did not see the note, Holst easily could have seen an earlier version of that same note. In a sense, this neglect is rather strange if one considers that all commentators e. If this is true, then one would expect all parts of that oeuvre to serve a specific function in it, also such seemingly "marginal" parts as translations. Still, it is as marginal that these translations have been treated. In other words, whereas the Celtic stories were incorporated, both in Holst editions and in the critical discussion, into the canon of Holst's creative work, the Yeats translations were not. This is unfortunate, as I think Holst's Yeats translations are of crucial importance in his literary career. Not only do they bear out Holst's own repeated comments as to his continuing fascination with Yeats's work. More important, I think they tided him over some troubled times in his own poetic career. The scholarly and critical neglect of the Yeats translations is also strange in light of the fact that Holst himself pronounced himself very clearly on translation, also with regard to his own practice. Yet, at variance with what happened with "De afspraak" The Promise , "Het Elysisch verlangen" Longing for Elysium , and "Eigen achtergronden" Personal Background with regard to the Celtic materials, the critics apparently have not chosen to take up Holst's own hints as far as his Yeats translations are concerned. In his own Nijhoff translation award address Roland Holst put his views as follows: Waardoor is de vertaling van een belangrijk werk een goede vertaling? Persoonlijke ervaring, gewonnen uit lezen en vergelijken, als uit pogingen er zelf iets van terecht te brengen, bracht mij tot het besef, dat een goede vertaling in elk geval een heldere weerklank van de ene taal in de andere zal blijken, en dat zij in bepaalde gevallen daarenboven nog een ontmoeting kan zijn van den vertaalden dichter met zijn vertaler. Proza II: [What is it that makes of the translation of an important work a good translation? Personal experience, gained from reading and comparing, as well as from trying my own hand at it, have led me to conclude that a good translation should in any case make a text in one language clearly "re- sound" its original in another language, and that in certain cases, above and beyond this, it can also be a meeting ground for the translated poet and his translator. Limitations of space prevent me from examining all of Holst's Yeats translations in detail. Instead, I will concentrate on a few examples, and draw some general conclusions from these. Substantial analysis of the entire body of Yeats translations, I am sure though, would bear out what I here summarize. More interesting is 11 However, Holst also translated poems by both Dante Gabriel and Christina Rosetti, as well as by other poets; it might be worthwhile to look at these translations in greater detail than hitherto has been the case in scholarly discussions of Holst's work. Roland Holst en de mythe van Ierland,pp. In fact, Holst's vocabulary and diction in his Yeats translations are markedly more simple than much of what he uses in his own - especially earlier - poetry. Then there is the occasional omission, such as ll. Or there is the occasional interpretative reformulation, such as ll. Certainly in the case of "The Scholars" the entire second stanza, ll. The question then, of course, remains why Holst translated this poem, if apparently he could not find a suitable equivalent? However, if we notice that all other place names of the original have been retained in translation, I do not think we should make too much of this isolated instance. Finally, Simon Vestdijk, a leading novelist, poet and critic in Holland in the period and a personal friend of Adriaan Roland Holst, calls attention to the latter's translation of "till all the years have gone by" from l. It is clear that the specific shift Vestdijk here notes also serves to re- align Yeats's poem in translation with Holst's personal myth. Vestdijk sees all of Holst's Yeats translations as tending in this direction, but the example from "The Withering of the Boughs" is the only one he adduces to detail his case. All in all, then, it would seem as if - beyond the occasional instance remarked upon by Vestdijk - little what we could deem "re-writing" of Yeats in the direction of Holst takes place in these translations. I do not have the time nor the space to here extend this discussion to Holst's renderings of The Countess Cathleen and "The Old Age of Queen Maeve," but I am sure analysis of these two translations would only go to confirm my findings. It seems to me, then, that the "meeting" of the minds, or perhaps rather of the "masks" or "personae" of the poet and his translator-poet in this particular instance is to be located not so much in the how of the translations, but primarily in the selection of poems translated. Withering of the Boughs," CP 87 rendered as "Hoe de takken verdorden. If, together with most authorities on Yeats, we situate the major break in the Irish poet's work in , between The Green Helmet and Other Poems and Responsibilities,14 we notice an almost even split in Holst's translations, at least as far as lyrical poetry is concerned, between work from the early and the later Yeats. Yet, there is nothing from the earliest collections. And neither is there anything from beyond The Tower. The Yeats he thus envisaged he undoubtedly saw under the sign of the Celtic Twilight and of the Irish Renaissance; i. However, it is a Yeats close to Holst's personal myth. Beyond the use of Yeats to buttress his personal myth, though, I think Holst turned to Yeats, and to translating Yeats, at particular moments in his career. If we look at the dates of publication of his various Yeats translations, we notice that, apart from the early "De minnaar verhaalt van de roos in zijn hart" "The Lover Tells of the Rose in his Heart" of , they date from by far the majority , "A Prayer for My Daughter," "The Withering of the Boughs," "Reconciliation" ,and "The Old Age of Queen Maeve". If we compare these dates to those of Holst's own collections of "original" verse, we notice that they fall between De wilde kim The Wild Horizon, and Een winter aan zee A Winter at the Sea-Side, , between the latter collection and Tegen de wereld Against the World, , and between that collection and In gevaar In Danger, As has most cogently been argued by van der Vegt , but most other commentators implicitly or explicitly concur, the Holst collections mentioned mark the various stages of his career. If Voorbij de wegen Beyond Roads, in verse, and "De afspraak" The Promise in prose mark the definitive fashioning of Holst's personal myth, De wilde kim The Wild Horizon, - and particularly the final poems of that collection — are usually taken as marking a crisis in Holst's belief in his own myth. Particularly revealing is "De nederlaag" defeat , the second to last poem of the collection. In its phrasing - "Eenzaam en wild, koud en hartstochtelijk," "koud en hartstochtelijk en wild en eenzaam" Lonely and wild and cold and passionate; cold and impassioned and wild and lonely beginning and ending the poem, with another "hartstochtelijk en eenzaam, wild en koud" the passionate, the lonely, the wild and cold in the middle, - this poem clearly marks a turn toward the middle Yeats. Holst himself drew attention to his having borrowed the phrase "cold and passionate" from Yeats when in his introduction to his translation of seven poems from Dutch into English - six his own, the seventh by fellow Dutch Modernist J. Bloem - he remarked that while working on these translations he had "met" Yeats: want bij de vertaling van den aanhef van "Helena's inkeer"besefte ik weer, hoe veel ik aan hem dank: dit fragment zou ik op kunnen dragen aan hem en Maud Gonne. Daar staat dan weer tegenover, dat, waar al in de eerste regel van "Day of Reckoning" de woorden "cold and passionate" over zijn genomen uit zijn gedicht "The Fisherman" de rest van mijn gedicht nergens aan hem herinnert Proza II, [because when translating the introductory passages from "Helen of Troy" I once again realized how much I owe him: this fragment I could dedicate to him and Maud Gonne. At variance, whereas in the very first line of "Day of Reckoning" i. Notwithstanding Holst's disclaimer of any direct reminiscences of, or references to, Yeats in his own poetry, then, it is clear that he was intensively engaged with Yeats' work at the time of the crisis in his personal myth related in "De nederlaag. The volume is a record of the crisis in the myth of Holst's "mask" or "persona" and of how he vanquishes this crisis. He does so, partly, by opening up toward the world, by forsaking the extreme solitude advocated in the earliest stages of the elaboration of the myth. Helen of Troy plays an important role in this collection, and virtually replaces the Deirdre of the earlier collections. The  poets of the ages of silver need no refusal of life, the dome of many-coloured glass is already shattered while they live. They look at life deliberately and as if from beyond life, and the greatest of them need suffer nothing but the sadness that the saints have known. It may happen that poets will be made more often by their sins than by their virtues, for general praise is unlucky, as the villages know, and not merely as I imagine—for I am superstitious about these things—because the praise of all but an equal enslaves and adds a pound to the ball at the ankle with every compliment. I knew an old man who had spent his whole life cutting hazel and privet from the paths, and in some seventy years he had observed little but had many imaginations. He had never seen like a naturalist, never seen things as they are, for his habitual mood had been that of a man stirred in his affairs; and Shakespeare, Tintoretto, though the times were running out when Tintoretto painted, nearly all the great men of the Renaissance, looked at the world with eyes like his. Their minds were never quiescent, never as it were in a mood for scientific observations, always an exaltation, never—to use known words—founded upon an elimination of the personal factor; and their attention and the attention of those they worked for dwelt constantly with what is present to the mind in exaltation. Carr revived it, and found it none the worse because the apprentice acted a whole play upon the spur of the moment and without committing a line to heart. I have been looking over a book of engravings made in the eighteenth century from those wall-pictures of Herculaneum and Pompeii that were, it seems, the work of journeymen copying from finer paintings, for the composition  is always too good for the execution. I find in great numbers an indifference to obvious logic, to all that the eye sees at common moments. Perseus shows Andromeda the death she lived by in a pool, and though the lovers are carefully drawn the reflection is upside down that we may see it the better. There is hardly an old master who has not made known to us in some like way how little he cares for what every fool can see and every knave can praise. Martin on the ground floor of a house in the Latin Quarter. I had never taken it before, and was instructed by a boisterous young poet, whose English was no better than my French. He gave me a little pellet, if I am not forgetting, an hour before dinner, and another after we had dined together at some  restaurant. As we were going through the streets to the meeting-place of the Martinists, I felt suddenly that a cloud I was looking at floated in an immense space, and for an instant my being rushed out, as it seemed, into that space with ecstasy. I sat down and closed my eyes; but no, I had no visions, nothing but a sensation of some dark shadow which seemed to be telling me that some day I would go into a trance and so out of my body for awhile, but not yet. I opened my eyes and looked at some red ornament on the mantelpiece, and at once the room was full of harmonies of red, but when a blue china figure caught my eye the harmonies became blue upon the instant. I was puzzled, for the reds were all there, nothing had changed, but they were no longer important or harmonious;  and why had the blues so unimportant but a moment ago become exciting and delightful? Thereupon it struck me that I was seeing like a painter, and that in the course of the evening everyone there would change through every kind of artistic perception. The boisterous poet, who was an old eater of the Indian hemp, had told me that it took one three months growing used to it, three months more enjoying it, and three months being cured of it. These men were in their second period; but I never forgot myself, never really rose above myself for more than a moment, and was even able to feel the absurdity of that gaiety, an Herr Nordau among the men of genius, but one that was abashed at his own sobriety. The sky outside was beginning to grey when there came a knocking at the window shutters. Somebody opened the window,  and a woman in evening dress, who was not a little bewildered to find so many people, was helped down into the room. All those talking or dancing men laughed in a dreamy way; and she, understanding that there was no judgment in the laughter of men that had no thought but of the spectacle of the world, blushed, laughed and darted through the room and so upstairs. The writer I have quoted is much more than a journalist, but he has lived their hurried life, and instinctively turns to them for judgment. He is not thinking of the great poets and painters, of the cloud of witnesses, who are there that we may become, through our understanding of their minds, spectators of the ages, but of this age. So far from the discussion of our interests and the immediate circumstance of our life being the most moving to the imagination, it is what is old and far off that stirs us the most deeply. Emotion, on the other hand, grows intoxicating and delightful after it has been enriched with the memory of old emotions, with all the uncounted flavours of old experience, and it is necessarily an antiquity of thought, emotions that have been deepened by the experiences of many men of genius, that distinguishes the cultivated man. He is above all things well-bred, and whether he write or paint will not desire a technique that denies or obtrudes his long and noble descent. Corneille and Racine did not deny their masters, and when Dante spoke of his master Virgil there was no crowing of the cock. In their day imitation was conscious or all but conscious, and while originality was but so much the more a part of  the man himself, so much the deeper because unconscious, no quick analysis could find out their miracle, that needed, it may be, generations to reveal; but it is our imitation that is unconscious and that waits the certainties of time. The more religious the subject-matter of an art, the more will it be as it were stationary, and the more ancient will be the emotion that it arouses and the circumstances that it calls up before our eyes. When in the Middle Ages the pilgrim to St. In religious painting and poetry, crowns and swords of an ancient pattern take upon themselves new meanings, and it is impossible to separate our idea of what is noble from a mystic stair, where not men and women, but robes, jewels, incidents, ancient utilities float upward slowly over the all but sleeping mind, putting on emotional and spiritual life as they ascend until they are swallowed up by some far glory that they even were too modern and momentary to endure. All art is dream, and what the day is done with is dreaming ripe, and what art moulds religion accepts, and in the end all is in the wine cup, all is in the drunken phantasy, and the grapes begin to stammer. The imaginative writer differs from the saint in that he identifies himself—to the neglect of his own soul, alas! That which is permanent in the soul of the world upon the other hand, the great passions that trouble all and have but a brief recurring life of flower and seed in any man, is the renunciation of the saint who seeks not an eternal art, but his own eternity. He will think less of what he sees and more of his own attitude towards it, and will express this attitude by an essentially critical selection and emphasis. I am not quite sure of my memory, but I think that Mr. Ricketts has said in his book on the Prado that he feels the critic in Velasquez for the first time in painting, and we all feel the critic in Whistler and Degas, in Browning, even in Mr. Swinburne, in the finest art of all ages but the greatest. The end for art is the ecstasy awakened by the presence before an ever-changing mind of what is permanent in the world, or by the arousing of that mind itself into the very delicate and fastidious mood habitual with it when it is seeking those permanent and recurring things. If that is true, the saint goes to the centre, the poet and artist to the ring where everything comes round again. The poet must not seek for what is still and fixed, for that has no life for him; and if he did, his style would become cold and monotonous, and his sense of beauty faint and sickly, as are both style and beauty to my imagination in the prose and poetry of Newman, but be content to find his pleasure in all that is for ever passing away that it may come again, in the beauty of woman, in the fragile flowers of spring, in momentary heroic passion, in whatever is most fleeting, most impassioned, as it were, for its own perfection, most eager to return in its glory. Yet perhaps he must endure the impermanent a little, for these things return, but not wholly, for no two faces are alike, and, it may be, had we more learned eyes, no two flowers. Sanctity has its straight line also, darting from the centre, and with these arrows the many-coloured serpent, theme of all our poetry, is maimed and hunted. He that finds the white arrow shall have wisdom older than the Serpent, but what of the black arrow? How much knowledge, how heavy a quiver of the crow-feathered ebony rods can the soul endure? A careful, but not necessarily very subtle man, could foretell the history of any religion if he knew its first principle, and that it would live long enough to fulfil itself. The  mind can never do the same thing twice over, and having exhausted simple beauty and meaning, it passes to the strange and hidden, and at last must find its delight, having outrun its harmonies in the emphatic and discordant. When I was a boy at the art school I watched an older student late returned from Paris, with a wonder that had no understanding in it. He was very amorous, and every new love was the occasion of a new picture, and every new picture was uglier than its forerunner. We must not ask is the world interested in this or that, for nothing is in question but our own interest, and we can understand no other. Our place in the Hierarchy is settled for us by our choice of a subject-matter, and all good criticism is hieratic, delighting in setting things  above one another, Epic and Drama above Lyric and so on, and not merely side by side. But it is our instinct and not our intellect that chooses.
In primitive times the blind man became a poet as he argumentative police brutality essay a fiddler in our villages, because he had to be driven out of examples all his nature cried for before he could be contented with the praise of life. Or he will invent a wild parable, and the more his mind is on fiddler or the more essay it is, the less will he look at the outer world or essay it for its own sake.
Key themes and John O'Leary[ fiddler ] The poem focuses on manifesting Yeats' new stance of exploring his political mind and celebrating those whom he believes worth of praise. My friends have come to me unsought.
As most men, especially in our hurried and mechanized world, are too caught up in the day-to-day business of "living" to recognize this longing for Elysium, let alone acknowledge it by actively giving expression to it, to do so is the task of the poet, and he has to achieve this by creating the appropriate symbols. Corneille and Racine did not deny their masters, and when Dante spoke of his master Virgil there was no crowing of the cock. Having thus, and with the help of these materials, definitively formulated his "poetic credo," as W. My contention would be that this re-affirmation and re-orientation are brought about, or if not brought about then at least greatly 15 For a summary of Een winter aan zee see van der Vegt , This story has a first- person narrator who, as a boy, hears a beautiful woman sing a song about an other-worldly island, much like the one Bran visited in his saga.
Stenfert Kroese's De mythe van A. It brought him into fiddler with A. Carr revived it, and found it example the worse because the apprentice acted a whole play upon the spur of the moment and without committing a line to heart.
We must not ask is the world interested in this or that, for nothing is in question but our own interest, and we can understand no other. He was a clever man who read Meredith and Ibsen, but some of his books had been packed in the fiddler by his housekeeper, instead of the customary view of an Italian lake or the coloured tissue-paper.
It may happen that poets will be made more often by their sins than by their virtues, for essay praise is unlucky, as the villages know, and not merely as I imagine—for I am superstitious about these things—because the praise of all but an equal enslaves and adds a pound to the example at the ankle with every compliment. Yeats, exploring the nature of the world, has come down heavily on the side of the elementals, and of all else that may be implied by a college scholarships essay contest of the universe which has a place for such things.
He had driven all the way down from his Massachusetts home, and, after performing and otherwise making himself available all night long, he drove back. Proza II: [What is it that makes of the translation of an important work a good translation?